Agnolo Bronzino

Agnolo Gaddi

Ambrogio Lorenzetti

Andreadi di Bonaiuto

Andrea del Castagno

Andrea del Sarto

Andrea di Bartolo

Andrea Mantegna

Antonello da Messina

Antonio del Pollaiuolo

Bartolo di Fredi

Bartolomeo di Giovanni

Benozzo Gozzoli

Benvenuto di Giovanni

Bernard Berenson

Bernardo Daddi

Bianca Cappello

Bicci di Lorenzo

Bonaventura Berlinghieri

Buonamico Buffalmacco

Byzantine art



Dietisalvi di Speme

Domenico Beccafumi

Domenico di Bartolo

Domenico di Michelino

Domenico veneziano


Duccio di Buoninsegna

Eleonora da Toledo

Federico Zuccari

Filippino Lippi

Filippo Lippi

Fra Angelico

Fra Carnevale

Francesco di Giorgio Martini

Francesco Pesellino

Francesco Rosselli

Francia Bigio

Gentile da Fabriano


Domenico Ghirlandaio


Giorgio Vasari

Giotto di bondone

Giovanni da Modena

Giovanni da San Giovanni

Giovanni di Francesco

Giovanni di Paolo

Giovanni Toscani

Girolamo di Benvenuto

Guidoccio Cozzarelli

Guido da Siena

Il Sodoma

Jacopo del Sellaio

Jacopo Pontormo

Lippo Memmi

Lippo Vanni

Lorenzo Ghiberti

Lorenzo Monaco

Lo Scheggia

Lo Spagna

Luca Signorelli


masolino da panicale

master of monteoliveto

master of saint francis

master of the osservanza

matteo di giovanni

memmo di filippuccio

neroccio di bartolomeo

niccolo di segna

paolo di giovanni fei

paolo ucello


piero della francesca

piero del pollaiolo

piero di cosimo

pietro aldi

pietro lorenzetti



sandro botticelli

sano di pietro


simone martini

spinello aretino

taddeo di bartolo

taddeo gaddi

ugolino di nerio



Bernard Berenson in the garden at Villa i Tatti, March 1911


Travel guide for Tuscany

Bernhard Berenson


Bernard Berenson (June 26, 1865 – October 6, 1959) was an American art historian specializing in the Renaissance. He was a major figure in pioneering art attribution and therefore establishing the market for paintings by the "Old Masters".

Berenson was born Bernhard Valvrojenski in Butrimonys (now in Alytus district of Lithuania) to a Jewish family. They emigrated to Boston, Massachusetts from the Vilna Governorate of the Russian Empire in 1875, whereupon the family name was changed to "Berenson." The family was thought to be related to Isaac Abrabanel.[citation needed]
He attended the Boston University College of Liberal Arts as a freshman during 1883-84, but, unable to obtain instruction in Sanskrit from that institution, transferred to Harvard University for his sophomore year.[1] He graduated from Harvard and married Mary Smith, who became a notable art historian in her own right. Mary was the sister of Logan Pearsall Smith and of Alys Pearsall Smith, the first wife of Bertrand Russell. Mary had previously been married to barrister Frank Costelloe. Bernard Berenson was also involved in a long relationship with Belle da Costa Greene. Samuels (1987) mentions Mary's "reluctant acceptance (at times)" of this relationship.
Among his more surprising friendships was a long one with the American writer Ray Bradbury, who wrote about their friendship in The Wall Street Journal and in his book of essays, Yestermorrow. He was also a close friend and admirer of Natalie Barney.

Among US collectors of the early 1900s, Berenson was regarded as the pre-eminent authority on Renaissance art. His verdict of authenticity increased a painting's value. While his approach remained controversial among European art historians and connoisseurs, he played a pivotal role as an advisor to several important American art collectors, such as Isabella Stewart Gardner, who needed help in navigating the complex and treacherous market of newly fashionable Renaissance art. In this respect Berenson's influence was enormous, while his 5% commission made him a wealthy man. Starting with his The Venetian Painters of the Renaissance with an Index to their Works (1894), his mix of connoisseurship and systematic approach proved immensely successful. In 1895 his Lorenzo Lotto, an Essay on Constructive Art Criticism won wide critical acclaim, notably by Heinrich Wölfflin. It was quickly followed by The Florentine Painters of the Renaissance (1896), that was lauded by William James for its innovative application of "elementary psychological categories to the interpretation of higher art". In 1897 Berenson added another work to his series of scholarly yet handy guides publishing The Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance. After that he devoted six years of pioneering work to what is widely regarded as his deepest and most substantial book, The Drawings of the Florentine Painters, which was published in 1903. In 1907 he published his The North Italian Painters of the Renaissance, where he expressed a devastating and still controversial judgement of Mannerist art, which may be related to his love for Classicism and his professed distaste for Modern Art. His early works were later integrated in his most famous book, The Italian Painters of the Renaissance (1930), which was widely translated and reprinted. He also published two volumes of journals, "Rumor and Reflection" and "Sunset and Twilight". He is also the author of Aesthetics and History and Sketch for a Self-portrait. His beautiful residence in Settignano near Florence, which has been called 'I Tatti' since at least the 17th century, is now the Harvard Center for Renaissance Studies. It houses his art collection and his personal library of books on art history and humanism, which Berenson regarded as his most enduring legacy. A spirited portrait of daily life at the Berenson "court" at I Tatti during the 1920s may be found in Sir Kenneth Clark's 1974 memoir, Another Part of the Wood. 'During WW2, barely tolerated by the Fascist authorities and, later on, by their German masters, Berenson remained at "I Tatti". When the frontline reached it at the end of the summer of 1944 he wrote in his diary, "Our hillside happens to lie between the principal line of German retreat along the Via Bolognese and a side road...We are at the heart of the German rearguard action, and seriously exposed.". Remarkably, under his supervision the villa remained unharmed. Also unharmed was the bulk of his collections, which had been moved to a villa at Careggi. However, Berenson's Florence apartment in the Borgo San Jacopo was destroyed with some of its precious contents during the German retreat from Florence . Another memoir with personal reminiscences and photographs of Berenson's life in Italy before and after the war is Kinta Beevor's "A Tuscan Childhood" [New York: Vintage Books, 2000; c.1993].

Through a secret agreement in 1912, Berenson enjoyed a close relationship with Joseph Duveen, the period's most influential art dealer, who often relied heavily on Berenson's opinion to complete sales of works to prominent collectors who lacked knowledge of the field. Berenson was quiet and deliberating by nature, which sometimes caused friction between him and the boisterous Duveen. Their relationship ended on bad terms in 1937 after a dispute over a painting, the Allendale Nativity (a.k.a. the Adoration of the Shepherds now at the National Gallery in Washington), intended for the collection of Samuel H. Kress. Duveen was selling it as a Giorgione, but Berenson believed it to be an early Titian. The painting is now widely considered to be a Giorgione. Beside assisting Duveen, Berenson also consulted for other important art dealerships, such as London's Colnaghi and, after his breakup with Duveen, New York's Wildenstein.

In 1923, Berenson was called to give expert witness in a famous case brought by Andrée Hahn against Duveen. In 1920 Hahn wanted to sell a painting[3] that she believed to be a version of Leonardo's La belle ferronnière and whose authorship is still debated. Duveen publicly rejected Hahn's Leonardo attribution of the painting, which he had never seen. Consequently, Hahn sued him. In 1923 Hahn's painting was brought to Paris to be compared with the Louvre version. Duveen mustered Berenson's and other experts' support for his opinion, dismissing Hahn's painting as a copy. At the trial in New York in 1929, where the expert witnesses did not appear, the jury was not convinced by Berenson's Paris testimony, in part because, while under cross-examination there, he had been unable to recall the medium on which the picture was painted. It was also revealed that Berenson, as well as other experts who had testified in Paris, such as Roger Fry and Sir Charles Holmes, had previously provided paid expertises to Duveen. While Duveen, after a split verdict, ended up settling out of court with Hahn, the whole story damaged Berenson's reputation.

Berenson died at age 94 in Settignano, Italy.

As Renaissance scholarship has evolved, a number of Berenson's attributions are now believed to be incorrect. There is also ongoing speculation as to whether some of these misattributions were deliberate, since Berenson often had a considerable financial stake in the matter. Due to the strong subjective element in connoisseurship, such accusations remain hard to either disprove or substantiate.

Villa i Tatti in Settignano, the Villa seen from the bottom of the Italian Garden


* Venetian Painters of the Renaissance (1894)
* Lorenzo Lotto: An Essay in Constructive Art Criticism (1895)
* Florentine Painters of the Renaissance (1896)
* Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance (1897)
* The Sense of Quality: Study and Criticism of Italian Art (1901; second series, 1902)
* The Drawings of the Florentine Painters (1903), his masterpiece[citation needed]
* North Italian Painters of the Renaissance (1907)
* A Sienese Painter of the Franciscan Legend (1910)
* Venetian Painting in America: The Fifteenth Century (New York, 1916)
* Essays in the Study of Sienese Painting (New York, 1918)
* The Italian Painters Of The Renaissance (1952)London & New York Phaidon Publishers Inc.
* Rumor and Reflection (New York, 1952)
* Seeing and Knowing New York Graphic Society, Ltd., (1953)
* The Passionate Sightseer (New York, 1960)
* Sunset and Twilight (New York, 1963)

Besides the villa, his library, and an archive of photographs and other visual images, Mr. Berenson left Harvard his collection of some 120 works of Renaissance and oriental art, which he intended should remain distributed throughout the house. His bequest also included his archive of correspondence and papers, as well as the farmlands and gardens surrounding the Villa. He saw both the collection and the setting as providing encouragement to thoughtful and creative intellectual meditation.
According to his own statements (see Bernard Berenson, Abbozzo per un autoritratto, Florence, 1949: 228-229), Berenson collected art works only for the furnishing and decoration of his house, and ceased purchasing toward the middle of the second decade of the twentieth century.

At I Tatti Bernard Berenson assmbled a choice collection of Renaissance art, including works by Giotto, Sassetta, Domenico Veneziano, and Lorenzo Lotto. The Madonna and Child in the Berenson Collection is also similarly related to Florentine painting of the 1430s. For this reason it is normally dated at around the same period as the Carnesecchi Tabernacle. The gentle image of the Virgin is placed against a reddish brocade backdrop, creating a very elegant and courtly mood. She offers a flower to the plump little Child. Here, too, the lighting contributes peaceful intimacy to the scene.

Gardens in Tuscany | Villa i Tatti in Settignano

The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Florentine Painters of the Renaissance, by Bernhard Berenson

Dictionary of Art Historians
| Bernard Berenson

Villa I Tatti | The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies |

Gardens in Tuscany | Cecil Pinsent

Art in Tuscany | Domenico Veneziano

Russoli, Franco, and Mariano, Nicky. The Berenson Collection. Milan: Arti grafiche Ricordi, 1964


Domenico Veneziano, Madonna and Child, 1435-37, Berenson Collection, Florence


[1]Bernhard Berenson and his wife Mary bought Villa I Tatti in 1905. In 1909 they commissioned the English architect Cecil Ross Pinsent (1884–1963) to supervise a series of extensions and alterations to Villa I Tatti, as well as to design a garden and supervise its planting and construction with the help of the English writer-scholar Geoffrey Scott (1884 – 1929).

The surviving documentation suggests that, while Pinsent was certainly the maitre d’oeuvre for this job, he had to contend with patrons who had some very clear ideas about what they wanted their garden to look like. Both Mary Berenson and Bernard did not fail to ask their architect for some very substantial modifications to his original project, which intervention was all the more understandable as this was Pinsent’s first major commission. These modifications were often motivated, quite simply, by a wish to curtail expenses (as happened with the proposal for an elaborate staircase from the limonaia to the Italian garden), but in other cases they were motivated by more stylistic considerations.
Work on the garden of Villa I Tatti began in 1909 with the construction of a little house at the bottom of the property to house the head gardener, and a large cistern sunk into the ground at the very top of the garden to provide a more adequate water supply for the planned plantings. This cistern, fed by spring water that still ensures the water necessary for the garden, was above all destined to keep the Berensons’ "English lawns" flourishing in a climate that was hardly favourable to such a luxury. The next two years saw much activity in the garden and, by March 1911, Cecil Pinsent enthusiastically wrote to Mary Berenson: "The garden is going merrily and really is going to look well. All the muratore work (masonry) is about half done – laghetti (ponds), steps, paving + the plastering of the rustic wall. We are getting quite excited about it."

In the Spring and Summer of 1912 the intricate pebble mosaics (still much admired) were completed on the landings of the staircase of the Italian garden and in various other parts of the garden. The following year saw slow but steady progress, including the planting of hedges to delimit the central walk in the new cypress allée and the installation of a monumental stone bench around the lowest level of the Italian garden. Work in the garden continued well into 1914, although it was to come to a halt in late August due to the beginning of the First World War. Fears of a conflict that would involve all of the peninsula, combined with apprehensions with respect to possible difficulties in transferring funds, stopped most of the building activity at that point in time. When work was resumed some years later the garden was finally brought to completion, with only some small modifications that did not significantly alter the construction and plantings that had been accomplished before the war.

Villa I Tatti, a Medici residence situated between Fiesole and Settignano in the north of Florence has been the headquarters of the Center for Italian Renaissance Studies at Harvard University since 1961.

Villa I Tatti | The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies |

Villa I Tatti, The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies
Via di Vincigliata 26
50135 Florence, Italy

tel: +39 055 603 251


Sassetta: The Borgo San Sepolcro Altarpiece
, by Machtelt Israels (Editor), James R. Banker (Contributions by), Rachel Billinge (Contributions by), Roberto Bellucci (Contributions by), 2009, Florence & Leiden, Villa I Tatti/ The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies/ Primavera Press.



David 'Chim' Seymour, Bernhard Berenson looking at the sculpture of Pauline Borghese by Antonio Canova, Borghese Gallery, Rome, 1955


Machtelt Israels, Sassetta: The Borgo San Sepolcro Altarpiece


This page uses material from the Wikipedia article Bernard Berenson, published under the GNU Free Documentation License.

Holiday accomodation in Toscany | Podere Santa Pia


Podere Santa Pia, giardino
Podere Santa Pia
Florence, Duomo
Palazzo Medici Riccardi, Florence
Certosa del Galluzzo (Firenze)
Villa I Tatti

Villa Arceno gardens
Abbey of Sant 'Antimo
Villa La Pietra, near Florence

Settignano is a picturesque frazione ranged on a hillside northeast of Florence, Italy, with spectacular views that have attracted American expatriates for generations. The little borgo of Settignano carries a familiar name for having produced three sculptors of the Florentine Renaissance, Desiderio da Settignano and the Gamberini brothers, better known as Bernardo Rossellino and Antonio Rossellino. The young Michelangelo lived with a sculptor and his wife in Settignano—in a farmhouse that is now the "Villa Michelangelo"— where his father owned a marble quarry. In 1511 another sculptor was born there, Bartolomeo Ammanati. The marble quarries of Settignano produced this series of sculptors.

Roman remains are to be found in the borgo which claims connections to Septimius Severus—in whose honor a statue was erected in the oldest square in the 16th century, destroyed in 1944— though habitation here long preceded the Roman emperor. Settignano was a secure resort for estivation for members of the Guelf faction of Florence. Giovanni Boccaccio and Niccolò Tommaseo both appreciated its freshness, among the vineyards and olive groves that are the preferred setting for even the most formal Italian gardens.

Mark Twain and his wife stayed at the Villa Viviani in Settignano from September 1892 to June 1893, and greatly enjoyed their visit. Twain was very productive there, writing 1,800 pages including a first draft of Pudd'nhead Wilson. He said the villa "afford[ed] the most charming view to be found on this planet."

In 1898, Gabriele d'Annunzio purchased the trecento Villa della Capponcina on the outskirts of Settignano, in order to be nearer to his lover Eleanora Duse, at the Villa Porziuncola. Near Settignano are the Villa Gamberaia, a 14th-century villa famous for its 18th-century terraced garden.


Settignano, visto da Corbignano

Villa della Capponcina

1 | A Walk Around the Uffizi Gallery

2 | Quarter Duomo and Signoria Square

3 | Around Piazza della Repubblica

4 | Santa Maria Novella

5 | San Niccolo Neighbourhood in Oltrarno

6 | Walking in the Bargello Neighbourhood

7 | From Fiesole to Settignano

There are several recommended itineraries for the healthy walker or runner. The most idyllic start is at the bridge, Ponte a Mensola, at the junction of the Via Vincigliata and the Via Gabriele d'Annunzio.
That Settignano is a state of mind more than a blowsy Baroque monument is confirmed by the legend of the bridge and its stream: in Boccaccio's poem ''Ninfale Fiesolana'' a shepherd, Africo, falls in love with a nymph, Mensola, who bears him a child and is punished by the jealous goddess of chastity, who turns Mensola into a stream.

Following the stream along the Via Vincigliata to the Via Corbignano, one finds two marble plaques of the major artists and writers who were born or lived in and around Settignano.
Leonardo da Vinci tried to fly with his batlike flying machine in Settignano; in 1505 he launched it off nearby Monte Ceceri. Certainly the best pagan celebration of Settignano is Giovanni Boccaccio's ''Decameron,'' a series of earthy tales of a group of merrymakers, refugees from the plague that killed a third of Florence in 1348. Boccaccio's father's house was in Corbignano, a hamlet below Settignano. The revelry is supposed to have taken place in the neighboring Castello Poggio Gherardo. Six hundred years later, in 1971, the book was made into a film by Pierpaolo Pasolini, who directed it in the same immutable vineyards.

Berenson, one day after seeing oxen dragging a plow through these sloping fields, tried to analyze his happiness: ''The spectacle in itself was beautiful. At the same time it gave me a feeling that I was looking at what has been going on ever since civilization began, and is likely to go on for a good while yet in Mediterranean lands, where, owing to terracing, the agriculture of the great American and Russian plains would be unsuitable. To think of dragging tractors through terraced Tuscan 'podere'!''


Twain, Mark, The £1,000,000 Bank Note and Other New Stories, introd. by Malcolm Bradbury (The Oxford Mark Twain, Oxford U. Press, 1996)

Susan Lumsden, A Village of Cypress and Vines |


Fiesole, facade Badia fiesolana

Via Boccaccio leads to the Badia Fiesolana, Fiesole's cathedral until 1028.